This introductory research text trains students to develop research arguments by designing studies, gathering research evidence, and thinking critically about them. This textbook is ideal for the student with little or no research background. Fundamental research issues are discussed in detail and provide building blocks for further study, giving students both comfort and knowledge. This textbook is designed to teach students how to "do scholarship" by making reasoned cases and offering research conclusions. The fourth edition features a complete updating of examples and revision of treatments of key concepts to maintain the timeliness of the book in the fast-changing world of communication studies research.