Since the enormously successful first edition of Forensic DNA Typing was published, the Human Genome Project has published a draft sequence of the human genome and completed the "finished" reference sequence. The advent of modern DNA technology has resulted in the increased ability to perform human identity testing-desirable in a number of situations including the determination of perpetrators of violent crime such as murder and rape, resolving unestablished paternity, and identifying remains of missing persons or victims of mass disasters. The technology has been utilized in identifying remains from victims of the World Trade Center twin towers collapse following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the President Clinton-Monica Lewinsky scandal, and the identification of the remains in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Indeed, our perceptions of history have been changed with DNA evidence that revealed Thomas Jefferson fathered a child by one of his slaves. This book examines the science of current forensic DNA typing methods by focusing on the biology, technology, and genetic interpretation of short tandem repeat (STR) markers, which encompass the most common forensic DNA analysis methods used today. Ten new chapters have been added to accommodate the explosion of new information since the turn of the century.