This book will give students a thorough grounding in pH and associated equilibrium, material absolutely fundamental to the understanding of many aspects of chemistry. This book uses the new theoretical developments that have led to more generalized approaches to equilibrium problems which are often simpler than the approximations which they replace. For example: Acid-base problems are readily addressed in terms of the proton condition, the graphical approach of Bjerrum, Hägg, and Sillén is used to illustrate the orders of magnitude of the concentrations of the various species involved in chemical equilibria, and in the description of acid-base titrations a general master equation is developed. This text also provides a continuous and complete description of the entire titration curve and graphical estimates of the steepness of titration curves. Finally, an entire chapter is devoted to what the pH meter measures, and to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties involved.