This volume in the Short Oxford History of Europe series examines the sixteenth centuryone of the most tumultuous and dramatic periods of social and cultural transformation in European history. Six leading experts consider this period from political, social, economic, religious, and intellectual perspectives. The book includes material on regions of Europe often ignored in other general histories of the period, such as the East and the Mediterranean world. This unique text challenges, tests, and revises the received wisdom of past accounts in light of the most modern historical scholarship. Traditional textbook historyfrom the multiple "revolutions" to the rise of the nation-statesemerges transformed from this volume.