This concise modern survey examines the many recent interdisciplinary developments in the study of environmental changes over the last three million years. It is the fourth edition of this acclaimed book and has been completely revised to reflect the substantial amount of new information and to provide an up-to-date analysis of this important and politicized topic. The outline of the book remains the same, with the new material incorporated throughout. The most heavily revised sections are those on techniques for environmental reconstruction, glaciation in lower altitudes and the southern hemisphere, climatic changes in the twentieth century, and the causes of environmental change. These sections include numerous new illustrations and new guides to further reading. The broad geographical coverage and non-technical language make this book valuable to students in a wide range of courses in geology, physical geography, archaeology, and the life sciences.